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The complexities of the present scientifically developed and technologically advanced society have given special position to the need for planning in education. Like planning in any field, educational planning has to explore the best possible means of making the greatest use of available resources leading to the maximum realization of the educational aims and objectives, both individual and social. So educational planning may be defined as a systematic design of action for realization of educational aims and objectives for individual and social development through maximum utilization of available resources.
In practical perspective, educational planning is defined as a process utilized by an administrator while performing the role of a leader, decision-maker, change agent and so on. Proper educational planning saves time, effort and money as planning in every field is a time-saving, an effort-saving and a money-saving activity. Educational planning is a sound method of solving educational problems by avoiding the trial and error method of doing things.
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Educational planning checks wastage and failure and contributes to the smoothness, ease and efficiency of the administrative process in the field of education. Through proper planning in education, education can be the best means by which society will preserve and develop its future value system, way of life of an individual, knowledge, skills and applications, and culture of the country.
Through proper educational planning, the means and ends of the society can be properly interacted through educational system. Educational planning is highly essential for preparing a blueprint or plan of action for every programme of an educational institution or organisation. It is essential to maintain, sustain and enhance the thinking process of an individual, institution or organisation. Planning in education is necessary to highlight the universal aims of education required for every nation for its development in every respect.
To bring total development of a nation in time, in which educational development is one among its various aspects. To reflect the modern developments like explosion of knowledge, advancement of science and technology, development of research and innovation while reformulating the aims and objectives of education in the light of the particular situation a country is facing. It explores and provides the best possible means of making the wide use of available resources leading to maximum realization of the educational goals. Educational planning facilitates gathering of educational experts, teachers, supervisors and administrators for taking decision in relation to the realisation of purposes of educational programme.
Educational planning gives equal importance to the purposes of different classes of experts such as sociologists, economists, scientists, politicians, educationists etc.
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Generally speaking administrative planning refers to planning in administrative perspective. In the field of education, administrative planning relates to distribution of responsibilities and powers for different levels of education. In administrative educational planning, the administrative responsibilities and powers are phase-wise planned in relation to the level of different educational administrators.
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This planning of education makes a detail plan on structure and organisation of education at different levels — primary, secondary, higher secondary, higher — general, technical and professional. This planning prepares planning on duration of an educational programme, organisation and co-ordination of educational programmes, financial allocation or budget for the programme, engagement of educational officials in the programme, and smooth management of the programme etc.
This type of educational planning refers to planning for smooth academic transaction of the syllabus for any course at any level of education. It encompasses planning on education in relation to needs and demands of the individual and society. Formulation of educational goals, formation of curriculum committee for development of curriculum and selection of appropriate strategies and methods of teaching, planning of content units, planning for evaluation, planning for review of the curriculum, planning for use of library, planning for special provision for the gifted and remedial instruction for slow learners etc.
Finally, the study revealed the potential of the research approach to overcome some of the obstacles to the integration of GBL in formal learning contexts, as mentioned by several authors Klopfer et al. Although the literature argues that educators often find it difficult to integrate the playing of games into the time structure of the school day, the results of the study showed that meaningful planning of the GBL activities, embedding the game with the other activities, allowed for a useful integration of the LGs with the classroom activities.
Although the authors highlighted technical and logistical issues as a barrier to the successful integration of GBL practices in the classroom, the affordances of the chosen game engine, as well as the quality of the equipment available in the centers, allowed for a perfect unwinding of the GBL activities. Counselors at all levels utilize the interventions discussed to this point. However, educational planning and placement, career planning and placement, and scheduling students' classes are activities that are very much a part of high school counselors' roles, engaged in to a limited degree by middle and junior school counselors, and almost totally absent from the roles of elementary school counselors.
Assessment for educational and career planning, including the interpretation of tests and inventories to students and parents, follows this same pattern, with elementary school counselors being only marginally involved in these types of activities and counselors at higher levels becoming progressively more involved. In the USA, school counselors have been caught up in the assessment of educational progress that characterizes the educational reform movement in many schools. The result is that elementary school counselors often coordinate the end-of-grade tests, while middle and high school counselors coordinate the end-of-course tests that are used to assess achievement in individual subject areas.
High school counselors may also be involved in administering college admissions tests as well as general academic competency tests required for graduation by some schools. Jo-lda C. Hansen Ph. The Jackson Vocational Interest Survey JVIS Jackson, , appropriate for high school and college students and adults who need assistance with educational and career planning, is composed of forced-choice items describing occupational activities. The 34 homogeneous scales that measure work roles and work styles each contain 17 items estimated to be at the seventh-grade reading level.
The work-role scales include five that characterize specific occupations e. The eight work-style scales measure preferences for environments that require certain behaviors e. Development of the 34 homogeneous Basic Interest Scales relied on a theory-based technique of scale construction. The process began with identification of the interests to be measured from previous research in vocational psychology.
Then 3, items were written to represent the interest constructs. Finally, the item pool was submitted to a series of factor analyses to identify the items that had high correlations with factor scores on their own scales and low correlations with other JVIS scales. The 10 General Occupational Themes later were constructed by factor analyzing the 34 Basic scales. Standard score norms for the Basic and Theme scales are based on a combined-sex sample of female and male high school and college students.
Interpretive bars representing the percentile distributions of scores of the females and males on each scale allow individuals to infer how their scores compare with that of other people. John P. These three institutes have also maintained a scholarly and systematic orientation in their studies of education across both the developed and developing countries of the world. These publications emphasized the idea of lifelong learning in a world context that included both developed and developing countries in which seven tensions were operating in a world where globalization was rapidly taking place, between.
The monitoring of the change caused by globalization in education across the world is currently a major challenge for research in education. Only with soundly based information on the magnitude and direction of change that is provided through the use of strong and well-recognized indicators can policy making and planning lead to avoiding the major catastrophes that could be caused by the use of nuclear weapons, the population explosion, degradation of the biosphere, and widespread death from disease and famine.
The conference did not just consider initial education and the basic skills of literacy and numeracy. It sought to achieve, by the turn of the century in the year , six important targets:. In , a World Education Forum was held at Dakar in Senegal to carry out a comprehensive review of what had been achieved in the different regions of the world where UNESCO centers operated to introduce and support these objectives during the previous decade. No region of the world could claim with the necessary evidence to have achieved its goals.
Nevertheless, this program of purposeful and deliberate activities, operated on a worldwide front in all the many different regions through the governmental involvement of three-quarters of the countries of the world. This was a major educational revolution since it was the first occasion on which a great majority of the nations of the world had agreed through the introduction of educational policy that the provision and nature of education would be changed through specific programs. Education was clearly recognized as the only way through which a majority of the peoples of the world both as national groups and indirectly as individuals could agree to advance the quality of life of all people who were living on planet Earth.
Within organized programs undertaken on a worldwide basis, the type of research activity that is considered to be required involves the introduction and the monitoring of the changes in the levels of performance of the people for whom the developmental programs are provided. This strategy of the monitoring of educational outcomes, can be linked to the systematic and regular collection of information, or can involve conducting special assessment and evaluation studies in order to obtain the necessary information, before, during, and after a planned program is conducted.
The monitoring of educational outcomes is considered in greater detail in a later section. Anne Winiarski, Harry A. Neuropsychological reports can be used in a variety of settings, and for a variety of purposes. Neuropsychological reports can also be used in forensic settings to determine whether someone is mentally fit to stand trial or to help an individual obtain worker's compensation in a lawsuit. Because individuals rely on these reports for sometimes life-changing purposes, it is essential to obtain and maintain competence in assessment before administering, scoring, and interpreting a neuropsychological battery American Psychological Association, Neuropsychological assessment can provide valuable insight into the current state of functioning of individual patients, and can enable a clinician to make recommendations about treatment and services that an individual may need to thrive in spite of having neuropsychological deficits.
It is the authors' hope that this very brief introduction has introduced the reader to some of the more widely used neuropsychological assessments, to their utility, and to their applicability across various domains.
Approaches on educational planning in Cadernos de Pesquisa ()
All of the assessments listed above are generally administered using pencil, paper, and stimulus materials. Test developers have recently begun taking advantage of newer technologies to create standardized assessments that can be administered entirely on computers and tablets. The CVLT-II is one example of a standardized measure that can now be administered in its entirety using this tablet-based system. An important issue is whether the introduction of self-management with decentralization of funds to schools leads to corruption at the local level.
The reason for the study was stated in the following terms. The focus was on practice in systems of self-managing schools.
Particular attention was given to transparency, the accurate collection of data, the avoidance of fraud, and the need for a range of auditing procedures at different levels. Few instances of fraud were uncovered in the study. Recommendations were concerned with training, preparing manuals of financial procedures, removing opportunities for collusion, designing an agreed format for financial reporting across the system, local monitoring that is frequent and independent of the principal and administrative staff, the use of independent auditors, external checking of statistics that are used in determining allocations, and clarity in explanations of funding formulae so that they can be readily understood by all stakeholders.
Advising - Educational Planning
Sign In Help. Educational Planning Educational planning is the activity which allows the public authorities to orient educational development, set priorities in consultation with other actors, identify priority interventions, and extend funding support to achieve the country's economic and social objectives. Download as PDF. Set alert. About this page. Learn more about Educational Planning. Educational Sociology L.